Cover Osteuropa 11/2022

In Osteuropa 11/2022

Shield and Sword 2.0
Russia’s Special Services Abroad

Reiner Haunreiter

Deutsche Fassung


The Federal Security Service (FSB), the Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR), and the Military Intelligence Service (GRU) are important instruments of rule in Russia. They serve to preserve the system at home and assert Russian inter-ests abroad. GRU and FSB operations in Europe, including assassinations and murders, have drawn global attention. After Russia’s attack on Ukraine, hundreds of agents were expelled from the European Union. This number serves to indicate the strong presence of these services in the EU. Germany and the EU lack effective counter-espionage measures. At the same time, contact with Russia’s services should be re-established.

(Osteuropa 11/2022, pp. 91–110)